The N2O-mediated oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODHP) to propylene has been investigated in the temperature range of 673-773 K over steam-activated FeMFI zeolites with different framework compositions (Si-Al, Si-Ga, Si-Ge, and pure Si). The catalysts, which were characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD, and FTIR of pyridine adsorbed, HRTEM, and UV/vis, have a very similar iron content (0.6-0.7 wt %). A tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) coupled to on-line analysis of products has been applied to simultaneously monitor activity and mass changes during the ODHP reaction. FeAlMFI and FeGaMFI zeolites display higher propylene yields (up to 25%) and a much slower deactivation due to coking than do FeGeMFI and FeMFI zeolites. The higher density and strength of acid sites in the former samples did not induce a faster catalyst deactivation. In general, catalyst deactivation was accelerated upon decreasing the reaction temperature. The total amount of coke formed in the samples during 400 min on stream ranged from 6 to 23 wt %, increasing linearly with the amount of propylene produced. The distinct performance of both groups of zeolites is likely related to the different iron speciation, which is influenced by the composition of the framework. The smaller primary crystallites of FeAlMFI and FeGaMFI, as well as the presence of mesopores in these samples, which are created by dislodgement of aluminum and gallium to extraframework positions, appear to be also beneficial for higher catalyst effectiveness and a reduced deactivation.