Recent years have seen the rapid development of a new field of palladium catalysis in organic synthesis. This chemistry takes place outside the usually encountered Pd0/PdII cycles. It is characterized by the presence of strong oxidants, which prevent further palladium(II)-promoted reactions at a given point of the catalytic cycle by selective metal oxidation. The resulting higher-oxidation-state palladium complexes have been used to develop a series of new synthetic transformations that cannnot be realized within conventional palladium catalysis. This type of catalysis by palladium in a higher oxidation state is of significant synthetic potential.